content of this page

1- Introduction

2- Physiological  Overview

3- Symptoms 

4- Treatment 


is a general term used to describe infection and inflammation of the endocardium—especially the
cardiac valves. Bacteria are the most common cause of infective endocarditis, especially streptococci, staphylococci, or enterococci. Other causes include viruses, fungi, rickettsiae, and parasites. Recognizing the likely mode of exposure is helpful in identifying the microorganism involved. Untreated, infective endocarditis is a lethal disease but morbidity and mortality diminish significantly with the use of antibiotics
and improved diagnostic techniques.

Physiological Overview

It occurs when bacteria or fungi enter the bloodstream and adhere to damaged heart tissue. This infection leads to the formation of vegetations—clumps of microorganisms and fibrin—that can impair valve function and potentially break off, causing emboli and subsequent complications like stroke.


  • Fever and Chills: Often the first signs.
  • Heart Murmur: New or changed heart murmur.
  • Fatigue: Persistent tiredness.
  • Aching Joints and Muscles: Common symptom.
  • Night Sweats: Especially common in infective endocarditis.
  • Shortness of Breath: Due to heart dysfunction.
  • Swelling: In the feet, legs, or abdomen.
  • Petechiae: Small, red or purple spots on the skin.


  • Antibiotics: High-dose intravenous antibiotics are the primary treatment.
  • Surgery: In severe cases, to repair or replace damaged heart valves.
  • Follow-up Care: Regular monitoring to prevent recurrence.
Scroll to Top