Lung Tumor

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1- Introduction

2- Anatomical Overview

3- Causes

4- Treatment 


A lung tumor is an abnormal growth of cells that can develop in one or both lungs. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Lung tumors can originate in the lungs themselves (primary tumors) or spread to the lungs from other parts of the body (secondary or metastatic tumors).

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Anatomical Overview

Lung tumors can develop in various parts of the lungs, including the central airways (bronchi) and the outer regions (peripheral). Central lung tumors, located near the bronchi, can obstruct airflow and cause symptoms like coughing, wheezing, and breathing difficulties. Peripheral lung tumors, found in the lung periphery, may not cause symptoms until they grow larger or spread. These tumors can also be classified based on the lung lobe affected; the right lung has three lobes (upper, middle, and lower), while the left lung has two (upper and lower).

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  • Secondhand smoke: Exposure to secondhand smoke from others’ cigarettes, cigars, or pipes can also increase the risk of developing lung cancer.

  • Radon gas: Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that can seep into buildings and homes through cracks in the foundation. Prolonged exposure to high levels of radon can increase the risk of lung cancer.

  • Asbestos: Exposure to asbestos fibers, often in workplaces such as construction sites or shipyards, can lead to lung cancer, particularly in smokers.

  • Air pollution: Long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution, including vehicle exhaust fumes and industrial emissions, can increase the risk of lung cancer.

  • Occupational exposures: Exposure to certain substances in the workplace, such as arsenic, chromium, nickel, or diesel exhaust, can increase the risk of lung cancer.

  • Family history: A family history of lung cancer or genetic predisposition can increase an individual’s risk of developing the disease.

  • Personal history of lung disease: Individuals with a history of certain lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or pulmonary fibrosis, may have an increased risk of developing lung cancer.

  • Radiation therapy: Previous radiation therapy to the chest for other conditions, such as breast cancer or lymphoma, can increase the risk of developing lung cancer.


  • Surgery: Surgical removal of the tumor may be an option for early-stage lung cancer or for certain types of benign lung tumors. The goal of surgery is to remove the tumor and any affected surrounding tissue.

  • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells. It may be used as a primary treatment for lung tumors that cannot be surgically removed, or it may be used after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.

  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be used alone or in combination with surgery or radiation therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.

  • Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy uses drugs that target specific abnormalities in cancer cells. It may be used for certain types of lung tumors that have specific genetic mutations.

  • Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy works by stimulating the body’s immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. It may be used for certain types of lung cancer that are not responding to other treatments.

  • Palliative care: Palliative care focuses on providing relief from symptoms and improving the quality of life for patients with advanced lung cancer. It may include pain management, symptom control, and emotional support.

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